In recent years, people have become more aware of the importance of essential fatty oils in human health and prevention. Essential fatty acids are abundant in fish, vegetable oils, and fish oils. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with the reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Many mechanisms may play a role in the beneficial effects, such as alteration of cell membrane composition, gene transcription, or eicosanoid manufacturing. The mechanisms by which essential fatty acids influence gene expression are complicated and involve many processes. Understanding the molecular basis of essential fatty acids will help us develop new approaches for the prevention and treatment of many diseases.
Keywords Essential fatty acids and Omega-3 fatty acid, Docosapentaenoic Acid, Functional foods
There has been significant consumer interest in the health-enhancing role of specific foods or physiologically-active food components. Functional foods are foods or dietary elements that can provide significant health benefits, in addition to providing basic nutrition. Essential fatty acids (EFA), also known as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are essential fatty acids (PUFA) that must be supplied by food because they cannot be synthesized but are vital for good health. There are two types of EFA: omega-3 (o-3), and omega-6 (o-6). The final carbon-carbon double bonds in omega-3 fatty acids are found in the o-3 position. The third bond at the methyl end is the fatty acid’s methyl end, while o-6 fatty acids have it at the o-6 position. The sixth bond is at the methyl end. Because the n end is stable and energetically stable, it is not affected by physiological transformations in the human body. This is why o-3 and 6 designations are important. These double bonds are found in the cis configuration, i.e. The double bonds are in the cis-configuration, i.e. the hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides of the double bond. Functional foods can include a-Linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids (ALA), which have different properties.
Flax seed is rich in alpha-linolenic acids. It is also found in canola, hemp, walnut, and soybean oil in small amounts (Hunter 90). It’s most commonly found in the chloroplast of leafy green vegetables.
The richest source of these fatty acids is fish and fish oil. They contain a range from 39 to 50 percent for fresh and saltwater fish (Kinsella 90). EPA is a parent hormone of the series 3 eicosanoid hormonal compounds.
It can be found in red-brown algae and fish oil. It is a major brain omega-3 fatty acid. Also, it is found in the eyeball (retina). About 65 % of the brain is fat, and 50 % of that is DHA.
Status of o-3 fatty acid status in diet
ALA is sensitive to heat, light, and oxygen. It can become toxic if it is not protected. It is five times more likely to be destroyed than linoleic acids (LA) The average intake of o-3 fat acids has dropped to less than 20% of the levels found in common diets 150 years ago. 95 to 99 % of the population consumes o-3 fat acids less than what is required for good health. O-3 fatty acid has been identified as an essential nutrient, and the most therapeutic of all essential nutrients (20 minerals 14 vitamins, 8-11 amino acids, 2 fatty oils).